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In vitro antiurolithiatic activity of Onion, Allium cepa var. cepa (L., 1753) bulb extract using spectrophotometric and titrimetric analysis.


Related Institution

Pharmacy Department/School of Health Care Professions - University of San Carlos

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
March 2018


     The incidence of urolithiasis, a condition where urinary supersaturation causes more stone concentrations to form in the urinary tract, continues to ascend across the globe. The current medications employed alleviate only symptoms which poses a need for new formulations addressing urolithiasis. The study, In Vitro Antiurolithiatic Activity of Allium cepa var. cepa focused on the three major steps in crystallogenesis which are nucleation, aggregation and crystal formation. The antiurolithiatic activity of Allium cepa var. cepa was assessed utilizing three assays which are nucleation, aggregation and dissolution assays representing the steps in crytstallogenesis using calcium oxalate crystals to emulate kidney stones. Both nucleation and aggregation assays were executed through spectrophotometric analysis whilst redox titrimetry was employed for dissolution assay. The ethanolic bulb extract of Allium cepa var. cepa was used to assess antiurolithiatic activity and was prepared by maceration. A 100% stock solution of the different plant extract was diluted to 25%, 50% and 75% concentration and subjected to analysis. Out of the different plant concentrations, the 100% test solution showed the highest crystal nucleation inhibition at 54.72%. The same was true for crystal aggregation and crystal dissolution with 73.06% and 93.09%, respectively. A p-value of less than 0.01 was considered significant. The median percent inhibition on crystal nucleation for Allium cepa var. cepa ethanolic extract was 88.09% or 0.88mg/ml. While the median percent inhibition for crystal aggregation was 62.91% or 0.62mg/ml. The effective concentration of Allium cepa var. cepa ethanolic extract for crystal dissolution was 52.72% or 0.53mg/ml. The plant Allium cepa var. cepa was able to act on the all three steps of crystallogenesis - nuclear, aggregation and crystal formation. The extract tested positive for flavonoids, a known antioxidant that prevents crystal formation.


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